聲音建築 Architecsonic

Published on Art Plus magazine, October 2016


在弦線哼唱中,有幾何;在星球間距中,有音樂。(There is geometry in the humming of the strings. There is music in the spacing of the spheres.)
-畢達哥拉斯 Pythagoras


「聲音建築」可以視為音樂、聲響與建築等領域互相合作所留下的文化遺產。將建築視為視覺藝術的一部份,其實是長久以來的誤解。的確,你可以看到建築的外觀與結構以及空間中的裝飾,但是感受空間的經驗,卻是建立在光影、溫度、移動、聲音等非視覺所能概括的條件上。研究聲音建築,便是在探討從古到今各種透過建築結構達成的特殊聲響效果,以及未來可能的應用。

Architecsonic could be seen as cooperation of music, sound and architecture. For a long time, people always misunderstand that architecture is part of visual art. Indeed, the appearance and structure of a building and decoration are visual but from the perspective of spatial experience, it also attributes to light, temperature, movement, sound and other non-visual elements. The study of “Architecsonic" takes issues with different sound effects produced by various architectural structures and discusses possible application in the future.



建築結構中特有的聲學現象,有學者稱其為空間的音樂,泛指透過建築本身所製造的聲音。聲音是形塑空間感的主要力量之一。建築和聲音共構了所處空間的輪廓,創造了不可見的疆域,卻不被物理的界限所囿。一個常見的爭論為:建築,其實是視覺的、建立了限制並表現出邊際增長的傾向。但這些邊界其實僅是一個基礎框架,無法傳遞在空間中完整的探索經驗。發聲體(Sonic material)製造出的聲響空間(Sonic space)會包含許多聲音單元(Sonic elements)並環繞於聆聽者周遭。在聲學空間中(Acoustic space),聽者連續地接收從四面八方不同指向傳輸而來的聲音,不同的聲響彼此互動,經過聲學上轉化與衰減的過程,同時定義與修飾了整個空間。

Some researchers called this acoustics phenomenon spatial music, referring to the sound produced by the building. Architecture and sound construct spatial contour, which breaks the limit of physical space. There is a controversial argument says that architecture is visual and limited the extension due to space. However, these borders are merely frames, which couldn't deliver experience of exploration in the space. Sonic material produces ambience around audience. In acoustic space, audience receives sound from all directions and those sounds interact with each other, which decorates the space.



一般在考慮建築與聲音的關係時,聲音多被視為是「負面」的存在,如交通噪音、街坊喧鬧等,在設計上通常著重於建築結構上的阻隔功能,以求遮蔽這些被視為多餘的、不應存在的噪音。從另一方面來說,當個體處於完全寂靜無聲的「無響室」時,卻又是極端不自然的情境,甚至產生健康上的危害。既然無法關上耳朵,那就只好學習與周遭的聲音共處。於是,許多建築師、藝術家們開始思考,該如何將聲音更「正面」地運用在建築上。

Sound is viewed as “negative” existence when considering relationship between architecture and sound, like traffic and street noises. From the perspective of design, people usually emphasize on sound insulation and deliberate to hide undesirable noises. On the other hand, it is pretty unnatural that when individual stays in an absolutely silent anechoic chamber, which sometimes might even cause harm to health. Since we couldn't close our ears, it is better that we learn to go along with ambience. Hence, some architects and artists start to consider how to apply sound to architecture.  



在有關聲音建築的研究中,有一較早發展的領域被稱為「考古聲響學(Archaeoacoustics)」,該學門探索的多半是「已消逝」族群的聲音,對史前時期的音樂特別感興趣,例如探訪上古遺址,透過其空間聲響去探究物質活動與宗教祭儀等脈絡。

Among researches of architecsonic, there is an early-developed field called Archaeoacoustics, which explores faded ethnicity sound and focuses on prehistoric music.



愛爾蘭,紐格萊奇墓穴(New Grange, Ireland, circa 3300-2900 BC)

近代的聲響考古學開始應用數位技術與儀器,來探究上古遺址的聲音秘密。許多經由考古學所探討的文化,都集中在口語乃至聽覺,「聲學自然(Sonic nature)」為增進理解的重要一環。根據Peter McMurray,此處所討論的聲響考古學「與錄音科技密切相關,錄音科技亦同步地塑造我們對口述詩歌的感官經驗。」ICRL的團隊曾用全指向喇叭做為聲源,在愛爾蘭的諸多墓穴中偵測其頻率響應。所有探訪的墓穴,都有一個自然的主要共鳴,介於95-120赫茲區間,大多落在110-112赫茲,這結果與空間大小與形狀無關,且是為人造成的。他們的研究證實了大多數遺址中,類似樂器般的建築結構,都是經由外力改造(retrofitting)而成。紐格萊奇墓穴的大廳在110赫茲共鳴特別明顯;長達十九公尺的走廊,使得在其中被製造出的聲響朝著出入口持續衰減時,就像是木管樂器般,成為讓人不知從何而來的低吟。

Contemporary archaeoacoustics starts to apply technology and equipment to explore sounds of archaeological site. Current archaeology focuses on oral and audial exploration because sonic nature could make us understand more about the culture. According to Peter McMurray, archaeoacoustics is deeply related to recording technology, which could help us experience oral poetry better. ICRL used to use omnipolar loudspeaker as acoustic source and detect frequency of various graves in Ireland.  Those visited graves have one thing in common that they have one main natural acoustic source, whose frequency is about 110 to 112 hertz. The results turn out to attribute to artificial factors and have nothing to do with size or shape of the space. The research proves that those instrument-like structure of sites have been retrofitted. Among them, the hall of New Grange outstands with its 110 hertz resonance.




鴞鸚鵡(kākāpō)

紐西蘭瀕臨絕種的鴞鸚鵡(kākāpō),在求偶時雄性會建立一個競技場,並在其中大聲鳴叫,吸引雌性前來。每個競技場均為由雄性製成的圓盤形凹坑,最大可達十米,但一般深度及寬度至少能容下一頭半米長的鴞鸚鵡。在競技過程中,牠們除了會透過豎起全身的羽毛、跨大雙翅與提爪外,也會發出響亮而刺耳的叫聲及嗥叫來恫嚇對方。整個圓盤常毗鄰於石面、田埂或樹幹旁以利反射聲音;牠們也會在競技場上圓盤內的不同方位發出嗚叫,以使聲音能向四面八方傳送。為了吸引異性,雄性鴞鸚鵡會使前胸氣囊充氣,從而發出嘹亮而隆隆作響的低頻嗚叫。透過其建立的共鳴空間,這些嗡嗡聲在黑夜時至少一公里外也能聽見,順風時更能傳播達五公里遠。

kākāpō, an endangered New Zealand animal, will build an arena when in a courtship and tweet loudly to attract females. In the process of competition, they will erect their leathers, spread their wings and scream to intimidate enemy. The arena usually locates near stones or branches in order to reflect sound and kākāpō will tweet at different directions in order to spread sound to far away.




英格蘭,聲鏡(Sound mirror, 1916-1930s)

這些聲鏡於一次大戰時,被廣泛使用來偵測敵軍動態,在雷達被發明前是主要的防空警示設施。聲學鏡面(Acoustic mirror )通常是指可以反射、或許也可集中聲波的被動裝置。聲鏡雖然無法達到精確定位的功能,但比起配有擴音器但偵測距離短上許多的聲學定位系統,這些仿若「聆聽之耳(listening ears)」的巨大裝置仍有其優越性,在大範圍偵測時提供了有限的定位資訊。南英格蘭原本計劃要設置大範圍的巨大聲鏡,但隨後因低空搜索雷達系統(Chain Home System)的進步而取消。英國肯特郡(Denge)可看到功能與設計各異的聲鏡,現已成為觀光景點, 遊客可報名配有嚮導的行程遊覽。

These acoustic mirror firstly used as detecting enemies during world war I. Generally, it is viewed as passive installation that gathers sound waves. Even though acoustic mirror does not have a precise locate function, it is better than many acoustic locate system with speaker. Southern England was planing to install a huge acoustic mirror, but due to the advancement of  Chain Home System the plan was eventually canceled. Nowadays, you can see various acoustic mirrors in Denge and the site has been an attraction.




除此之外,在生態學、聲響學與建築、作曲等方面,像是聲音可沿著建築體環繞傳遞的北京天壇;作曲家Morton Feldman(1926-1987)受教堂空間啟發而創作的《Rothko chapel》(1971)、Iannis Xenakis(1922-2001)根據他為布魯塞爾博覽會所做的Philips pavilion外觀設計而完成的現代音樂作品《Metastasis》(1954),以及Alvin Lucier(1931- )讓空間成為共鳴箱介入作品的《I’m sitting in a room》(1969)等等,都是與聲音建築相關的案例。