噪音與寂靜 Noise&Silence

Published on Art Plus magazine, September 2016

「我們處在噪音的世界,我們無法關上門拒絕其招待,並在這無法計數的膨脹中進化與滾動。」 米歇爾·塞雷斯《寄生蟲》Michel Serres, Le Parasite (2007:126) 

"We are in the noises of the world, we cannot close our door to their reception, and we evolve, rolling in this incalculable swell." -Michel Serres, Le Parasite (2007, P.126)



艾米莉·湯普森(Emily Thompson)曾提到,當代社會的景觀,受都市化的影響遠比自然環境為多,處於一直不斷建構與改變中的狀態 。因此,當代社會的音景,即是工業化後人們聽覺想像的建構,噪音成為現代化生活中不可避免的副產品。「噪音」通常被視為不討喜的、令人厭惡的聲音 ,人們發明各種方式來遠離噪音,例如戴上耳塞、加裝氣密窗、對錄音進行降噪、制訂罰則等等。為了創造一個安靜的生活環境,對噪音的控制變成了現代許多學科的研究目的。要注意的是,聲音對個體的影響會因人而異;某人喜歡的聲音,可能對另一人卻是噪音;噪音是一個主觀的感受。  

Emily Thompson once mentioned that contemporary landscape is hugely affected by urbanization, rather than nature, and it is continuously reconstructed and changing. Hence, as human’s auditory imagination to soundscape, noise becomes an indispensable byproducts to our modern life. We often view noise as an annoying sound and people invent many products to escape from noises, such as ear plugs, alu clad windows and so on. In order to create a peaceful living environment, the control of noises becomes research goal for many fields. Note that, noise is a subjective feeling. One might likes the sound while the other hates it.



阿塔利(Jacques Attali)曾將噪音稱之為一種暴力,例如:謀殺;而聽音樂,就像是參加一場儀式性的謀殺 。因工業革命而誕生的噪音,成為死亡的無形武器。「儀式」是指這個規律的過程,比喻噪音被音樂化後的形態。因為噪音是無秩序的,而音樂則是對噪音小心翼翼的規範,進而形成某種秩序。這裡「儀式化」被賦予了政治概念,因為人類的存在本身,就是一步步把「混沌」規律化。 

Jacques Attali once called noise a murder and listening to music is like participating in a ritual murder. Industrial evolution gave birth to noise, which is endowed with death.



在眾多噪音當中,做為自給自足創作的「音樂」其實是近期的發明。如今,音樂卻已是無可避免之物,被大量且穩定地生產,像一組鏡子遊戲,反射、紀錄、界定和扭曲每一個活動。音樂-有組織的噪音(organisation du bruit),預言般地預告著新的社會關係。我們如何去詮釋聲音、如何組織、再現與使用聲音,都被儀式化過程中所形成的框架所宰制。今日音樂演出通常也依循著既有規則,表演者與觀眾間的關係固定而明確。阿塔利認為,噪音是這個規律的另一面,當音樂做為第一重權力的象徵,噪音可將其打破。又或者,解構「噪音-音樂」二元化對立的論述, 一方面可對規則化的聲響提出質疑,同時也是一種賦權。

Among various noises, the so-called music is actually contemporary invention. Nowadays, music is being massively produced and having a important status in society. Music, or we say organisation du bruit, predicts the society. The way we interprets, organize and use sound is framed under the ritualization. Performances cannot escape from it as well, which performers and audience have a rigid relationship. From Jacques Attali’s perspective, noise has a regular side, however, when music as the symbol of first power, noise can break through it.



盧梭羅(Luigi Russolo)在未來主義思潮下發表的「噪音的藝術(The Art of Noise, 1913)」,可讓人一窺最初噪音被推上舞台時的輪廓。隨著工業發展與科技革新,音樂家們企圖突破傳統調性與曲式的框架,朝反傳統、反美學的方向推進,打破寂靜與和諧、衝中既有規則。像是盧梭羅的噪音機器演出(intonarumori),以及未來派藝術家將車聲、機械聲、人群嘈雜聲等融入創作加以發表的嘗試,都再再顛覆了人們對於噪音與音樂的想像。

Luigi Russolo published The Art of Noise in 1913 under Futurism, which depicted silhouette of noise. With industrial development and advancement of technology, musicians attempted to breakthrough traditional frame and break the harmony. Not only Intonarumori, created by Luigi Russolo, some futurists put noises like cars, machines and crowds into works, which subverted people’s imagination of sound and music. 




在約翰·凱吉(John Cage)的「完全聲音空間」理論中,他認為音樂涉及所有聲音,包含非音樂性的聲音和寂靜。聲音有音高、音色、音量和時長(duration)等特徵,但寂靜則只有時長一個特徵。以「4分33秒」為例,演出者在持續時間內不發一聲,只留下時間(有聲與無聲的共同特徵)與環境的隨機聲響,就像羅森伯格於1951年繪製的「白畫」一樣,畫家在畫布上不留一筆,讓隨機陰影以及顏色反射逐漸取代中立表面。所以,全然空白的空間或時間其實並不存在,因總會有些什麼可以看、可以聽。

In John Cage’s theory, he thinks music covers all sound, including non-musical sound and silence. Sound has many characteristics like pitch, tone, volume and duration while silence merely has duration. Take “ 4’33” ” as an example, which also known colloquially as “Silence"; it asks the performer to sit at his instrument but play nothing, the environmental sounds instead produced by a typically uncomfortable audience. Hence, blank doesn't really exist because there is always something to see and something to hear. 



事實上,我們以為能夠創造寂靜,其實不然。凱吉曾說,他曾在無響室中聽到兩種聲音,一個高頻、一個低頻。工程師提醒他,高頻即是他體內運作中的神經系統,而低頻聲來自血液的循環。對此,他表示:「直到我死這裡都存在著聲音,且會在我的死亡後持續。我們不需要對音樂的未來感到憂慮。」

We thought we could create silence, but actually we couldn’t. John Cage once said, he heard two sounds in anechoic chamber, one is high frequency and the other is low. One engineer noticed him that high frequency is the nervous system in his body and the low one is circulation of blood. For this, John Cage stated that sound exists until I die and it still goes on after my death, so we don't need to worry about the future of music.



凱吉認為,如果要讓概念與時偕行,「寂靜」就需要被重新定義。他意識到在「聲響」和「寂靜」間,沒有客觀的二元對立,僅是有意圖的聆聽及主體轉移注意力至聲響的區別。他將「寂靜」重新定義成一種有意而為的聲音的缺席,或是之於意識的屏蔽。 

Cage thought that silence needs to be redefined and realized that there is not necessarily opposition between sound and silence. Hence he defined silence as a deliberate absence of sound.



也許,我們可將寂靜理解為「被動的聲音」。倫敦大學金匠學院的聲音藝術教授John Drever曾在「聽眾:聆聽(audience : hearing, 2007)」作品中探索了寂靜的呈現。他邀請了100位受試者在10分鐘的「面試」中保持沈默並對之錄音,這些錄音經過剪輯後並置,於一空白空間中錯綜地回放。在此,往常充斥的話語聲與動響的嘈雜被細密的寂靜所籠罩,為觀眾提供了感知與他人共享「寂靜」的時間,而他們也不自覺地加入到這場無聲之聲中,因著各式各樣的細微噪音與聲響細節,共同交織而成「寂靜」。

Perhaps, we could see silence as a passive sound. John Driver, a sound art professor in Goldsmiths, once explored the representation of silence in his work audience : hearing. He invited 100 subjects and asked them to remain silent in a 10-minute interview. He recorded the scene, re-edited and played in a blank space. The work offered audience a piece of silent time. Intertwining with trivial noise and sounds, audience and the space together construct silence.