西北行旅側記-甘肅風儀略寫 Travel Diary of Northwestern China— Gansu province

(原文刊載於2015年2月份「藝術收藏+設計」雜誌)


「黃河的水不停地流,流過了家流過了蘭州。遠方的親人呀,聽我唱支黃河謠。
日頭總是不停的走,走過了家走過了蘭州。月亮照在鐵橋上,我就對著黃河唱。
多少次睡夢裡頭 ,回到了家回到了蘭州。喝上一口黃河水,唱上一支黃河謠....」
野孩子-黃河謠


甘肅,在地理課本上被敘述為「華夏文明發源地」,省區狹長,包含黃土高原、黃河上游、甘南草原、祁連山脈與長達一千多公里的河西走廊。歷史課本則會提到漢代因張騫通西域,使河西走廊成為「絲綢之路」上的必經要道,漢人大量移居促使新市鎮興起。現實中,甘肅做為古絲路的起點,過往歷史榮光早已褪色;東西部資源分配不均、玉門、嘉裕關等地的礦產在欠缺規劃下迅速匱乏、產業變遷的衝擊與過度開發造成的沙漠化、使甘肅近年經濟發展上總於中國各省份中敬陪末座 。

Gansu, described as the birth place of Chinese culture in our geography text book, is a long and narrow province. It ranges from loess plateau, upper reaches of yellow river, Gannan grassland, Qilian mountain to Hexi corridor. We learnt from history text book that Zhang Qian made Hexi corridor part of the silk road when he served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China. The prosperity of this city attributed to large-scale immigration of Hans. However, even though as the starting point of silk road, Gansu has severely declined due to uneven distribution of resources, lack of planning in mining, industrial transformation and desertification. 



面對甘肅的發展困境,中國國家主席習近平提出「一帶一路」的口號,希望以包含敦煌石窟、長城在內的文化遺產與草原、大漠等自然景觀提振觀光,再次喚起國際重視。一時之間無處不是與中央指示相呼應的活動與文宣,從博物館、公家機關、學校到車站大廳,口號、標語無所不在,似乎在百廢待興的西北,只剩下斑駁的歷史積累能被政治正確地消費。諷刺的是,大多數文物已在文革時期被破壞殆盡,今日遊人所見往往僅是仿製的樣品。在地的、當下的文化景緻反而被官方漠視,整條河西走廊,就這樣被「古絲路」的幻想給塗抹地失去原樣。

Facing with dilemma of development in Gansu, Chinese president Xi Jinping came up with the idea of “Belt and Road”, hoping to boost tourism with its cultural heritage and nature. Over a night, related campaigns and articles are spread everywhere. You can see posters and slogan at school, bus station and museum. It seems like these historical heritages are treated as products and it is ironic to know that most of relics have been damaged during the cultural revolution so nowadays what tourists see are merely replicas. Government ignores present local culture and paints Hexi corridor with the illusion of silk road. 




黃河母親孕育的金城

The golden city raised by yellow river



蘭州,或者說西北,對外地人總是神秘又富含魅力,古怪地保留一種天然的美。當我甫從青海來到蘭州,一出火車站,熙來攘往的人車喧騰,與悠緩沈靜的西寧形成強烈對比。作為甘肅的省會,蘭州是西北的重要節點與交通樞紐,通常也是旅人進入甘肅的第一站。多元文化與風俗在此交錯,在相異中逐漸發展出共通性。

Lanzhou, or Northwest, is a mysterious and yet charming city. When I arrive there from Qinghai, hustle and bustle outside the bus station contradicts with the tranquillity of Xining (capital of Qinghai). As the capital of Gansu, Lanzhou is an important transportation hub in Northwest and also the first stop for those who travel to Gansu. Multi-culture harmoniously mixes together in this city.



這個沿黃河而建的狹長型帶狀城市,聚集了來自各地的過客;叫賣、喇叭聲不絕於耳,許多改裝的三輪車、摩托車在路邊攬客,各式電動車不受交通規則限制地在街頭穿梭,加上這幾年蘭州正在興建地鐵,使原本就容易雍瑟的交通益發混亂。在一片紛沓嘈雜中,蘭州人卻有種泰然自若的悠閒,與緊湊的東部城市大相逕庭。

This long and narrow city gathers tourists around the world. There are tricycles, motorcycles and electric vehicles weaving among the hurtling cars and trucks like a seamstress in search of a seam. The ongoing metro railway even makes it messier. However, local people live leisurely in the chaos of city, which is very different from eastern China.



在蘭州安排演出時,旅居北京的聲音藝術家顏峻引介了於當地擔任公職的宋暉,他同時經營一家別緻的複合空間「與陶工坊」,座落於段家灘「蘭州創意文化產業園」內。一進入「與陶工坊」是咖啡吧台與座位,再往內有一個開闊的製陶空間,外頭有自行搭建的窯爐,地下室則是展場,不定時會舉辦各種展演及工作坊,在當地算是相當新穎的營運模式。產業園內還有商業展場、劇場空間、咖啡店跟手作小店,不定時會有市集、展會等活動。除了實驗劇場,園內也有以改良式秦腔為主的劇團。

When I was arranging performance in Lanzhou, a Beijing-based sound artist Yan jun introduced Song hui who worked for the government to me. At the time, Song hui was running an exquisite complex space called “yu tao gong fang”, which is located lanzhou culture and creative industry park. The space has coffee counter and seats when you step in and if you go further, you will find a pottery classroom and furnace outside of it. There is also an exhibition at the basement, where has performance and workshop occasionally. It is a rather innovative business model. In this park, there are many other commercial exhibitions, theaters, cafés and handicraft shops, and sporadically have some markets and activities. In addition to experimental theater, there is a troupe perform revised Qingqiang in the park.



早年顏峻曾與一幫同好組織了「蘭州噪音協會」,這次在「與陶工坊」的演出,即與其創始成員別峰、周進等人同台,因此有幸認識一幫蘭州在地的藝文工作者,當中有人已返鄉安居,有人則還在四處飄蕩。雖然宋暉與其友人們不時會調侃蘭州像是藝文沙漠,與外頭的世界脫節,但幾天的活動下來,仍有不少自發性參與的觀眾。儘管蘭州仍處於向西方與沿海城市取經、模仿的階段,但相較起西北其他省會城市如銀川、西寧等已蓬勃太多。隨著像「與陶工坊」這樣從地方慢慢耕耘、累積的場景逐漸發展,假以時日這個廣納百川的城市必然會擁有自己的獨特樣貌。

From Yan’s early life, he founded Lanzhou noise association with his good friends and his co-founder Bie feng and Zhou jin were also one of the artists that would perform with me. I was lucky enough to know a  bunch of artists. Some of them now have gone back to their hometown, and the other of them are still wandering.  Even though Song hui and his friends sometimes mocked that Lanzhou is desert of arts and isolates  from outside world, there were still some audiences who participated voluntarily. Lanzhou nowadays is at the stage of learning western world and coastal cities of China. Compared with other provinces in Northwest like Yinchuan, Xining, nevertheless, Lanzhou is a lot more advanced.With the development of places like yu tao gong fang, given time, this city will definitely have its own unique charm.




藏區草原的手藝探訪

Visit in Tibetan grassland


甘南草原,在行政區塊上被劃分為甘南藏族自治州。人口組成以藏族為主,其他少數民族與穆斯林散居其間。這裡正緩慢而艱難地經歷城市化浪潮中變遷的痛楚,草原上的牧民開始定居,一些年輕人脫下僧袍前去大城市打工;儘管小鎮街道已迴盪著擴音喇叭的叫賣聲,大多數當地常住人口仍保持著農牧時代的生產和生活方式。這裡是被現代文明遠遠甩在後頭的一塊地方,中國當代設計師或藝術家的目光鮮少在此停留。偶有前來尋覓素材的攝影師,或在草原上捕抓最合口味的一角風景,或動用關係將形象氣質「有特點」的當地藏人打扮一番,在模糊背景中描繪想像中的藏地牧歌風情。

Gannan grassland, decided to Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, is populated mainly with Tibetans and few muslins. This place is undergoing the pain of urbanization: the herdsmen are setting down; many young people take off their frocks and find jobs in metropolis.  Even though the town is packed with sound of peddling, most of local people still remain agricultural and pastoral practices. This is a place that hasn't caught up with modern civilization and very few Chinese contemporary designers or artists reach out there. Occasionally, there are some photographers who seek for materials come here to shoot. 



合作市是甘南州府所在地,是本區的行政中心,雖然如此,一般仍是在旅人行程上會被忽略或僅當過站的節點。沒有太特殊的自然與文化景點,除了招牌上的藏漢雙語標示,房舍街道與眾多新中國的市鎮沒有太大差別,街道上人車稀落,與蘭州、天水等城市相較,發展程度落差較大。宋暉接續引薦了當地唯一一所大專院校「甘肅民族師範學院」美術系任教的王東。民族大學是為保障少數民族學生受教權、以少數民族學生為主體而設立的學校,往往在資源與學生程度上無法與一般大學比擬。美術學院,原本多以傳統技藝為主,而王東則在一番周旋後,想辦法在學校成立了「綜合媒體實驗室」,與原本既有的唐卡、漆畫、堆繡、陶藝、印刷工作室並列,成為美術學院中獨特的存在。

Hezuo is the capital and administration center of Gannan. However, because it lacks cultural attractions and special scenery, tourists rarely visit there. Except for bilingual signs (Tibetan and Chinese), this city looks almost same with other cities China but with lower development. Song hui later introduces me Wang dong, an art teacher working in one and the only local college “Gansu Normal University For Nationalities”. This college is established for ensuring minorities’ right to education and most of students are local minorities. School of fine arts originally focuses on traditional folk art and yet with Wang dong’s endeavor, the school set up media lab which is unique from other studios like thang-ka and painting.



王東向我介紹,實驗室的工作方向定位為學習和研究製作新的、活態的藏地新民藝形式;以跨媒體的形式探討當地文化和藝術形式能與當代文化藝術融合的可能性。「當然一切要從最基礎的工作開始。」他自2012年起組建了一個《看見手藝》團隊,利用課餘時間對甘南和青海一帶的民間手工藝進行田野調查,在其協助下,我才有機會深入當地居民的生活,一覽包括堆繡、燙鏟、木雕、石刻、銅器在內等獨具特色的民間工藝。

Wang dong introduced to me that the direction of the lab is for learning and doing research on creating new lively Tibetan folk arts. He wanted to discuss possibility of fusion between local culture and contemporary arts. “Of course, everything will start from the basic work.” he said. Since 2012, he organized a group called “see the handicraft” and doing field study of folk handicraft in Gannan and Qinghai in their space time. With Wang dong’s help, I had a chance to get to know more about locals and their folk arts including pile embroidery, shovel, woodcarving, stonecarvig and bronze.




 

環繞信仰運轉的生活與藝術型態
Superstitious lifestyle and art form


甘肅省內有兩個少數民族自治州,分別是臨夏回族自治州與甘南藏族自治州。臨夏古稱河州,數千年前曾孕育馬家窯與齊家等彩陶文化,有「河湟雄鎮」之稱。在河州,伊斯蘭教有著十分久遠的傳播歷史。早在唐代,伊斯蘭信仰隨著絡繹不絕的商隊擴散開來,在這片肥沃的土壤裡生根開花,孕育出一個由回、東鄉、保安、撒拉族集結而居的穆斯林群體。清代時,神祕主義色彩濃厚的蘇菲派學說在西北廣為傳播,並由此形成四大教派 和四大門宦 以及眾多分支,小小的臨夏,卻擁有一千多間清真寺與拱北,使河州素有中國「小麥加」之稱,每年吸引大批外地穆斯林慕名前來接受伊斯蘭教經堂教育。

There are Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture and Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gannan province. Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, formerly known as Guhezhou, includes two autonomous counties for other Muslim groups, namely Dongxiang, Salar, and Bonan. Since the founding of administrative divisions during the Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC), it has always been a link between western and central China. Linxia was a vital passage in the ancient Silk Road, Tang-Tibet and Gansu-Sichuan ancient roads, and was praised as the 'dock on land in West China'.



從臨夏進入甘南藏族自治州後,不久即抵達夏河縣。初到藏區,寺院建築、佛殿、經幡、轉經筒、白塔、紅牆、金頂、僧人、轉經朝拜的藏人,構築了視覺上的第一印象,似乎與想像中的藏區景色相去不遠。夏河,因境内的大夏河而得名,居民絕大多數是藏民,少數回民散居,街道上有零星的清真餐飲為當地穆斯林提供服務。由於拉卜楞寺座落於此,平日白天街道上各國遊客絡繹不絕,連帶使得本地物價較甘南其他區域高出不少。市區除餐飲、旅店外,還有許多佛具、飾品店舖,販售帶有藏區風情的紀念品,商家主要集中在一條主幹道上,再往下就是拉卜楞寺為主的區域。

Sooner I arrive at Xiahe city in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. I was first impressed by construction of temples, buddha hall, prayer banners, white tower, monks and so on, which matched what I have thought of Tibet. Citizens mostly are Tibetan and few of them are muslims. There are some Halal restaurants serving muslims. Due to the location of Labrang Monastery, this city is packed with tourists in the morning and therefore prices here are a lot higher than other Gannan cities. shops gathers in one main road and they sell Tibetan style souvenirs. 



拉卜楞寺是藏傳佛教格魯派(黃教)六大寺院之一,內有聞思、醫藥、時輪、吉金剛、上續部及下續部六大學院,在蒙藏地區的寺院中建制最為健全,為藏式和古宮殿式的混合結構。拉卜楞寺曾在文革時期被拆毀,僧人們遭到驅逐,目前仍在持續重建中。由於拉卜楞寺保留了現存藏傳佛教最完整的教學體系,許多不同世系活佛的轉世靈童都在此學習佛法。儘管遊客眾多,在院區遊走仍會感受到信仰的重量與莊嚴。唯在經堂與寺院中,僅能見得宗喀巴與當今班禪的相片,十一世達賴無可避免地缺席了。

Labrang Monastery is one of the six great monasteries of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Like so many religious institutions, it suffered during the Cultural Revolution; and the monks were sent to their villages to work. Nowadays, it is continually reconstructed. It has a Buddhist museum with a large collection of Buddha statues, sutras and murals. In addition, a large amount of Tibetan language books, including books on history is available for purchase, together with medicines, calendars, music and art objects.



 

索巴 是王東的朋友,為當地藏族唐卡畫家,自小學畫,曾相繼前往青海、西藏、四川等地拜師學藝。夏河縣在政府的支持下,「甘南藏族唐卡」在生產與經營方面快速發展。唐卡(藏文:ཐང་ཀ་)在藏语的意思為「松樹」,通常繪於布幔或紙上,可收成捲軸移動,便於收藏。其內容可大略分成故事唐卡與聖像唐卡,必須根據經典的儀軌製定。嚴格的規範在一定程度上限制了唐卡在風格和形式上的創新,但也使許多在工筆劃領域中已經逐漸失傳的古代技法、材料優勢被完好地保存。因使用天然植物與礦石作為顏料,唐卡歷經千年也不會褪色。繪製過程從選布塗膠開始,打磨起稿,再勾勒輪廓、著色(先背景後佛像),最後點睛、裝藏(在背面寫上六字箴言),直到裝裱完成後,還需交由高僧誦經開光才算大功告成。

Suo ba is a friend of Wang dong and he’s a local thang-ka painter. He learnt drawing since he was little and he has pursued drawing skills from masters around China. With the support of government, Gannan Tibetan thang-ka has a rapid growth in producing. A thang-ka, is a Tibetan Buddhist painting on cotton, or silk appliqué, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, scene, or mandala. Thangkas are traditionally kept unframed and rolled up when not on display, mounted on a textile backing somewhat in the style of Chinese scroll paintings, with a further silk cover on the front. So treated, thangkas can last a long time, but because of their delicate nature, they have to be kept in dry places where moisture will not affect the quality of the silk. Most thankas were intended for personal meditation or instruction of monastic students. They often have elaborate compositions including many very small figures. A central deity is often surrounded by other identified figures in a symmetrical composition. Narrative scenes are less common, but do appear.



在索巴的工作室,有著幾個學徒在製作未完成的唐卡,索巴會在必要時給予提醒跟建議。過去唐卡畫師們有著許多禁忌,因為唐卡就像「移動的佛龕」,從畫前儀式 到選材,繪製都有許多規範,如嚴禁吃肉、飲酒、吃蔥蒜、近女色並要沐浴等。但索巴認為,現在的唐卡畫師與學徒已不再需要拘泥於傳統,即使應用現代科技輔助,只要心中虔誠,效率與信仰間是自然能取得平衡。

In Suo ba’s studio, there are some apprentices making thang-ka. Sou ba will give them advices if necessary. In the past, thang-ka painters have to follow many rules due to thang-ka’s sacredness, like no meat and drinks, one has to shower after touching women. From Suo ba’s view, nowadays thang-ka painters don't have to stick to the rules but use modern technology to improve their works. He thinks that once you are faithful in your heart, it is possible to achieve balance between efficiency and belief. 



近年唐卡藝術在國際上日益受到矚目,中國沿海城市也常有專門的唐卡展售與拍賣活動,索巴這兩年即分別在南京與無錫參展。各地的唐卡作品反映了不同的地緣、民俗風情與信仰派別。雖然發源於西藏,但歷經不同時期的變革、融合,如今西藏、青海、蒙古、尼泊爾等地的唐卡,都有著明顯的風格差異 。唯一不變的是唐卡中那些佛國故事,千年來凝聚著藏族人民的信仰和智慧,寄託著對佛祖的情感和對雪域家鄉的熱愛。

Recently, thang-ka art has drawn public’s attention and many exhibitions and actions have occurred in coastal cities of China. Sou ba has participated in the exhibitions in Nanjing and Wuxi. Different thang-ka works reflect different geography, customs and beliefs. Originated in Tibet, each region has undergone different revolution and fusion and hence thang-ka in different cities like Tibet, Qinghai, Mongolia and Nepal have obvious distinction. The only thing that hasn't changed is the buddhist stories in it, gathering Tibetan people’s belief and knowledge and their faith in Buddha.





單一敘事下的文化瓶頸

Cultural bottleneck under mono-description 


今年夏天在雲門舞集「流浪者計畫」的支持下,我得以於甘肅、青海、寧夏一帶進行查訪。陌生而鮮明的地貌、錯綜的民族與文化、虔誠的信仰與儀式,這些眼前所聞所見、相似與相異,顛覆了我對西北預設的假想。而後也體認到,當我們將中國境內的指涉對象視為同質群體時,往往會落入狹隘的想像之中,預設對方資訊的匱乏與思想上受到的箝制。然而,這樣過於扁平的揣測,卻讓我們錯失許多交流的可能,也難以消弭因誤解而生的隔閡。

This summer with the support of “wanderer program”, hosted by cloud stage, I got a chance to visit Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and relative regions. What I’ve seen there knocks me over my imagination to Northwest including those unfamiliar scenery, complex folks and culture and their beliefs and ceremonies. And later I realize that when we view Chinese as a group of people, we will narrow our mind. If we think of China as a country where lacks of information and mind control, we might lose the chance of communicating with them with this sort of flat conjecture.



當代中國是急促的,而散落在廣衾西北的次級城鎮,現在仍踉蹌地企圖跟上這樣的速度。在官方所宣稱的美好故事底下,掩蓋著因追求效率而犧牲的枝枝節節。計畫的最後兩週,我跟隨蘭州大學團隊穿越長達一千多公里的河西走廊。沿線的主要景點例如嘉峪關、敦煌等在觀光開發上都已相當成熟,甚至因過於商業化而流於形式,但在肅南、阿克塞等少數民族自治區,仍能明顯感受到城鄉發展與資訊上的落差。

Contemporary China in now at a raid pace and secondary and those second-tier cities locating in Northwest are trying hard to keep up with it. Under the fantasy that announced by government, many details have been buried in order to pursue efficiency. The last two weeks of this program, I walked across Hexi corridor stretching for some 1,000 kilometres with a group from Lanzhou University. Some attractions along the road have been commercialized with the development of tourism. However, in Sunan, Akesa and other Autonomous administrative divisions, there still exists huge gap of development and information. 



中國西北自古即為多民族聚居的地區,並有東鄉族、裕固族、保安族等甘肅特有少數民族,信仰混雜,苯教、藏傳佛教、伊斯蘭教等在此地都有上千年的歷史。若從漢人觀點出發,難免會落入單一故事的陷阱。對漢人而言,此區是罪犯、失意文人被流放邊疆的主要節點之一、是商人逐利必經的危險途徑。然而,當套上了一個過大的歷史框架,我們便很難從現下真實的場景與事件中,去描繪與連結不同族群與階級的獨特性。先認知差異,才有互相理解的可能;這看似簡易的道理,時至今日卻仍是許多人的困境,也是許多人選擇視而不見的問題。

Northwest of China has been a region blending with multi-ethics and beliefs. From a perspective of Han, we might fall into the trap of mono-description. Because to Han people, this is a place that is notorious for criminals and wandering poets and also a road for businessmen to pursue wealth.  Under the frame of historical background, it is hard to describe the distinctness of each ethics and classes from reality. You have to realize the difference so that you could have empathy with each other. Many people just still can’t figure out this rule and that's why many people ignore it.