聲音如何成為藝術? 聲音藝術收藏 How does sound become an art? The collection of sound art


(原文刊載於2016年4月號「藝術收藏+設計」雜誌)


聲音如何成為藝術 how does sound become an art?

儘管以聲音做為媒材或方法的創作形式已被普遍接受,「聲音藝術」在今日仍是定義模糊的一種藝術形態,其中涵蓋作曲、錄音、現場演出、裝置、聲音雕塑、聲音詩...等諸多嘗試。一般來說,會將其視為對20世紀後各種與聲音相關創作的集合,是對於當代某些類型「聲音創作」倒推的後設歸類,並不能用來置換廣義的、受到前衛運動影響的聲音創作。各種聲音都可成為藝術題材,一如我們所能見到與想像的畫面,都能成為繪畫、雕塑和攝影的素材一樣。然而,聲音做為時間性的產物,其難以保存、注定消逝於空氣中的特性,使其有別於繪畫或雕塑,經常需要某種載體-無論是播放工具或是儲存設備-才能存在;有些聲音藝術作品甚至沒有形體,只在呈現當下存在,例如土耳其藝術家凱弗德·埃裏克(Cevdet Erek)的現地聲音裝置「節奏的房間(Room of Rhythms)」。在此前提下,本文將概略介紹與聲音藝術創作相關的收藏與保存可能。

Even though sound has been widely accepted as a creation, the definition of sound art is still very vague, which includes composition, recording, live performance, installation, sound sculpture, sound poetry and other attempts. Generally speaking, sound art is considered as a gathering of various sound-related creation after 20th century and yet we couldn't categorized previous art works, which was created bases on specific contexts, into this. Any sound could be materials of art, just as painting, sculpture and photography. However, as production of time, sound is difficult to preserve, which makes it distinct from other art works like paintings and sculptures. In order to exist, sound has to rely on some sort of carriers, such as player or storage equipment. Some sound art works don't even have a shape and merely display present existence. The sound installation “Room of Rhythms”, created by Turkish artist Cevdet Erek is a perfect example of it. Under the premise, this article will briefly introduce sound art related creation and takes issue with the possibility of collecting and preserving. 



目前旅居巴黎的俄籍策展人葉卡捷琳娜·謝舍貝科沃(Ekaterina Shcherbakova)表示,當今被歸類為「聲音藝術」的作品,已被幾乎每家當代藝術展館納入策展環節中。雖然聲音藝術作品並未明顯地成為藝術收藏中的主要類型,但確實有越來越多的機構透過雙年展等大型展會進行典藏或委託創作。然而,呈現聲音藝術的形式與方法卻很龐雜。包含了塑料、金屬與視覺組件的聲音裝置,當然地強調了其對一般大眾與策展人的吸引力。但在此之外,限量或不限量的有聲品,例如唱片或黑膠,則是傳播藝術家作品的好工具。成熟的藝術家通常會整合兩種策略,因此,我們會看到許多聲音裝置作品,可能來自法國藝術家多明尼克·佩蒂岡(Dominique Petitgand)、希臘藝術家米哈伊爾·卡里基斯(Mikhail Karikis)或美國藝術家科里·阿康熱爾(Cory Arcangel),作品原件已由不同單位所收藏,但同時每一位對其作品有興趣的觀眾,都可透過購買唱片或黑膠的方式在某種程度上成為作品的收藏者。

Ekaterina Shcherbakova, a Russian curator who is currently based in Paris, revealed that nowadays most of art works that are categorized into sound art have been brought into every contemporary art exhibition. Although sound art works have not been dominant type of art collection, there are indeed more institutions collect this type of works and commission artists for works. Yet, the methods and forms of presenting sound art are rather huge and complex. Sound installations which contain plastic, metal and other visual components emphasize on attraction to the public and curator. In addition to it, limited music products like CD record or gramophone record are useful tools to communication artists. An experienced artists usually will integrate both of strategies. Hence, most of sound installations that we see might come from French artist Dominique Petitgand, Greece artist Mikhail Karikis or American artist Cory Arcangel, whose works have been collected by different units. If you are interested in their works, you could still collect those works through purchasing records or gramophone records.




 

音樂進入藝術市場 Music in art market

目前在倫敦大學金匠學院任教的聲音藝術教授派翠西亞·亞歷山德里尼(Patricia Alessandrini)表示,以聲音為主體的創作,一個有效的被典藏作法是限量版次,即使該件作品是由可被輕易複製或重製的數位媒體及操作手冊所構成,其價值仍會被其限定版次的數量所決定。

Patricia Alessandrini, a professor teaching sound art in Goldsmiths, said that an efficient way to make your sound-based creation valuable is to limit the issuance. Even though your work is easily reproducible or composed with manual, its value is still affected by the amount of it. 


近期一個絕佳事例,是紐約傳奇說唱組合「武當派(Wu-Tang Clan)」的「秘密」專輯。2013年時,「武當派」便曾為了紀念成立20周年,發起「武當混合藝術(WuTang Hybrid Arts,簡稱WuHa)」項目,販售衍伸商品及成員的藝術創作。2015年,武當派主腦RZA宣布,他們將製作絕無僅有的一張唱片《少林往事》(Once Upon a Time in Shaolin),這張專輯既不會通過實體店銷售,也不能在網絡購買下載,僅有單一版次委託線上拍賣平台Paddle8進行拍賣。這張專輯吸引了許多競標者,他說:「這些人當中有收藏家、紀念品獵奇者、億萬富翁、公眾熟知的人物、有商業意圖的公司。競標者五花八門。」,但這舉動卻也引發武當派原本歌迷的一片哀號,且最終得標者曾因買下愛滋病藥物達拉匹林(Daraprim)的藥方權利並哄抬價格而聲名狼籍,引發諸多爭議。

The Wu-Tang Clan's Secret Album is a perfect example of it. In 2013, Wu-Tang Clan launched WuHa project (short for WuTang Hybrid Arts) so as to celebrate their 20th foundation anniversary, which they sell group related products and art works. In 2015, the head of Wu-Tang Clan RZA claimed that they would produce one and only record Once Upon a Time in Shaolin and it merely sold on an action platform called Paddle8. According to RZA, Shaolin attracted many suitors: “Private collectors, trophy hunters, millionaires, billionaires, unknown folks, publicly known folks, businesses, companies with commercial intent, young, old,” he says. “It varied.” However, the album got extra controversial because the final winner was notorious for purchasing Daraprim prescription patent and raise the price.


《少林往事》的製作人曾經對彭博社說:「藝術家們需要被喚醒;為了達到進步的目的,我們為什麼不退後400年,回到文藝複興的年代,將音樂看作是一件需要被委託創作的產品,需要一個從創造到展覽到販賣的過程?」隨著網路普及所伴生的其中一個問題,是對於像流行音樂這樣便於複製和傳播的格式造成毀滅性打擊。相反地,市場中另一種創造性作品—以獨特、無法複製為前題的視覺藝術—其價格的飆升則益發失去理性。 「武當派」即是典型在新環境下難以生存的老式藝術家。在此情況下,藝術商品似乎是個很好的營銷模式。

"The music industry is in crisis," the producer of  Once Upon a Time in Shaolin explained on their website. "The intrinsic value of music has been reduced to zero. Contemporary art is worth millions by virtue of its exclusivity ... By adopting a 400 year old Renaissance-style approach to music, offering it as a commissioned commodity and allowing it to take a similar trajectory from creation to exhibition to sale ... we hope to inspire and intensify urgent debates about the future of music.” With widely spreading of internet, it deals a severe blow to pop music. Conversely, the value of visual arts, as another creative works in the market, has madly been skyrocketing due to its unique and irreproducible characteristics. Wu-Tang Clan is exactly a classic old artist that troubles with survival under new environment. Under this situation, art commodity seems like a good business model. 


 

帶有聲音的裝置 Installation that has sound

在做為一般藝術品典藏的聲音藝術裝置中,其中常見的為「原本就帶有聲音的裝置」。 其性質較接近於一般藝術市場上常見的裝置藝術,也包含雕塑與公共藝術等。有些複合媒材的作品則仍是以視覺藝術傳統為主,應用聲音做為其中一種媒材,奠基於藝術家過往的累積而流通於藝術市場,其中亦常見到將聲音做為素材進行跨領域的結合,以延伸作品的論述,與不同議題如環境狀態、社經結構等等結合,並讓聲響獲得可依附的視覺回饋。

Sound art installation, as a general art collection, often has had sound already. It is more like the installation art that we often see in the art market such as sculptures, public arts and so on. Some mixed media works are still based on visual art tradition and use sound as a material with issues like environment and socioeconomic to trigger visual feedback.



以荷蘭藝術家的「生聲花園(Biophonic Garden)」作品為例,玉米幼苗被間隔安排在水面,水箱中安置了水下麥克風,讓觀眾得以聆聽水下的有機聲響。同時裝置底部有一持續發出220hz的低頻喇叭,持續影響植物的生長。 植物的根部會逐漸在生長過程向喇叭位置靠攏。同時兼具了視覺與聆聽上的趣味。另一個常見的方式,是利用材質本身共鳴的特色及外在造型,去包裹聲音本身的敘事性,或讓材質本身的共鳴成為聲音文本。例如「低吟的密西西比(Humming Mississippi)」這件作品,與路易斯安那大學的「沿海液壓實驗室(Coastal Hydraulics Lab)」合作並由學術機構收藏,將密西西比河的訊號轉化為不同振盪器的參數。這種做法通常被稱為「聲化(sonification)」 ,意指將資訊聲音化的過程。

Take Biophonic Garden, created by a netherlandish artist, as an example. The work presents an experiment in which a group of corn seedlings are suspended in a water tank. A submerged audio transducer attached to the bottom of the water tank emits a pure sine tone tuned to 220 hz. The corn seedlings respond to this sound by extending their roots in the direction of the sound source, like sunflowers tracking the position of the sun, which is very interesting in both visual and audio way. Turning material’s resonance into sound text is another common way to wrap the story of a sound. For example, collaborated with Coastal Hydraulics Lab of Luisiana University and is collected by academic institution, the Humming Mississippi turns signal of Mississippi river into different parameters of oscillator. We named this “sonification”, referring to the process of turning data into sound.


 

此外,澳洲白兔美術館(White Rabbit Gallery)曾收藏台灣聲音藝術家王福瑞的聲泡(Sound Bulb)與電磁音景(Quiet Noise-Electromagnetic Soundscape )兩件聲音裝置作品。《聲泡》是由麥克風與喇叭隨機發出不同音量迴授(Feedback)的聲音裝置。藉由單晶片微處理器、數位電阻和繼電器控制迴授的音量,玻璃燈泡有如發聲的共鳴載體,不同形狀載體有不同的聲音。電磁音景是帶有互動性的作品,觀者須手持特製儀器走近這如懸浮都市般的裝置,才能聆聽到藝術家錄製的電磁音景。

On top of that, Australian White Rabbit Gallery has collected two sound installation works, which are Sound Bulb and Quiet Noise-Electromagnetic Soundscape respectively. With single-chip micro processing, digital resistance and controlled volume, glass lightbulb produces different sound like a resonant carrier. Electromagnetic soundscape is an interactive work, which needs audience to walk in this floating-city like installation with a special equipment  in order to hear artist’s work.


曾在MoMA舉辦「聲音:當代記錄」(Soundings: A Contemporary Score)聲音藝術特展的策展人芭芭拉·倫敦(Barbara London),解釋藝術家們何以日益受聲音藝術吸引,她說,也許是因為它涉及兩個令人興奮的尖端領域:音樂和畫廊藝術。來自英國格拉斯哥的蘇珊·菲利普茲(Susan Philipsz)也參與了這場在MoMA的盛會,原本在視覺藝術領域已有一定名氣的她,在轉入聲音藝術創作後,作品的商業價值已藝術界獲得廣泛認可。

Barbara London, who once has hold Soundings: A Contemporary Score at MoMA, explained the reason why artists are gradually interested in sound art. She said that because sound art dabbles in two exciting cutting-edge filed: music and gallery art. Susan Philipsz from Glasgow also participated in this great event. She was famous in the field of visual art, however, after changing her career path into sound art creation, her works have been widely accepted and have high business value.


「我本來已經放棄了,覺得自己不可能賺到錢,」菲利普茲說。實際上,市場已經注意到聲音藝術的價值,她首批製作的三件聲音裝置,2007年在譚亞·博納科達(Tanya Bonakdar)展出後即全數售出。根據畫廊經理伊森·斯科拉(Ethan Sklar)所說,菲利普茲的作品「對於尋找最有力量、最有挑戰性作品的收藏者和機構而言」很有吸引力。他指出,和大件雕塑作品相比,菲利普茲作品的資料光碟不存在存儲和運輸問題,這對於作品的出售也是有益無損,況且她的聲音藝術和雕塑一樣可以充滿空間、打動人心:「你可以擁有一件用盒子就能裝起來的史詩級作品。」「目前它其實還沒有被商品化,這使它顯得平易近人,」倫敦女士說,「所有這些作品都有詩意,有種飄渺易逝的感覺。」

“I was going to give up and thought I could never earn money from it,” she says. In fact, market has already noticed the value of sound art. In 2007, her first three sound installations have been sold out after exhibition of Tanya Bonakdar. According to Ethan Sklar, the gallery manager, Philipsz’s works attract to collectors or institutions who are looking for powerful and challenging works. He pointed out that comparing with large sculpture works, Philipsz’s cd works don't have to face with storage and transportation issues, which is beneficial for selling. Besides, her sound art is spatial and impressing just as sculpture. “You could pack an epic work just with a box. Sound art has not been commercialized, which makes it more approachable.” London said, “These works are poetic and ethereal in some way.”



聲音藝術的市場仍然處於初期階段,即便只是在世界上幾個主要的藝術博覽會上匆匆一瞥,任何人都能理解,聲音藝術並非對藏家來說最理想與渴望的藝術形式。蘇富比和佳士得兩大拍賣行皆表示,儘管錄像藝術已經漸漸開始能夠賣出好價錢,但他們尚未出售過聲音藝術作品。聲音藝術那種略帶不食人間煙火的感覺可能會增加它的吸引力。然而,聲音藝術仍是經常被機構典藏的創作類型,可被理解為需要政府或機構支持的一種媒介。它可以「活」在保有表演形式的可能性,也可以說,藝術家能夠以藝術品的形式出售聲音演出。

Sound art market has still at its early stage. Everybody knows that sound art is not an ideal and desired art form for collectors even though they glance at it in world-famous art exhibition. Sotheby’s and Christie’s both claim that although video art is gradually selling with a nice price, they have never sold any sound art work. The solitude of sound art makes it extra attractive. However, it has still been collected by institutions and it needs to be supported by government. Sound art could survive with performance, that is to say, artists could sell sound performance with the form of artistic work.


 

委託創作與演出  Commissioned creation and performance

在藝術家威廉.赫勒曼(William Hellerman)的策劃與支持下,紐約的雕塑中心(The Sculpture Centre)於1984年舉辦了開創性的「聲音/藝術(Sound/Art)」展覽,儘管當時結合聲音與視覺藝術已是蓬勃發展的領域,此展覽仍為最早對於聲音裝置(sound sculpture)與有聲藝術(audio art)領域的探索之一,並是藝術機構委託創作聲音藝術作品的先例。

With an artist William Hellerman’s support and plan, in 1984 The Sculpture Centre held a groundbreaking Sound/Art exhibition. Even though at the time audio visual art was a flourishing filed. This exhibition has been one of the earliest exploration of sound sculpture and audio art and a precedent of commissioned sound art works.


派翠莎以巴黎的IRCAM聲響與音樂研究中心為例,2010年時,該機構曾委託製作動力裝置展演「無四重奏的慢板(Adagio sans Quatuor)」,由派翠莎作曲、IRCAM製作,並於巴黎的雅格娜藝術節期間發表。

Patricia later took IRCAM, a French institute for science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical art music, as an example.  In 2010, IRCAM commissioned her to create Adagio sans Quatuor, which is a powerplant performance. The work is compose by Patricia and produced by IRCAM, it was published during Paris Art Festival.


這件作品包含了曲譜、裝置以及軟硬體配置等部分,在收藏上類似於音樂的版權,其演出與展示時所使用裝置與設備,是會損耗並需要替換的。這件作品的實體目前由IRCAM所收藏,該機構同時也擁有此件作品的使用權利。而這意為每次當此件作品展出時,會由IRCAM代為收取版權費用,並負責提供作品呈現所需的材料與裝設指導,如金屬板、馬達等等。例如2013年在盧森堡Philharmonic的雨天藝術節,以及今年將在巴黎Gaîté lyrique進行的展出。

Adagio sans Quatuor includes composition, installation, software and hardware. The work is currently collected by IRCAM and the institution owns its patent, which means that if the work exhibits, IRCAM would charge a copyright fee and offer materials and instructions for presenting this work. Adagio sans Quatuor has exhibited in Luxembourg and will perform at Gaîté lyrique in Paris this year.


再以大衛·都鐸(David Tudor)的「雨林(Rainforest)」系列作品為例,他自1968年起,試圖透過一系列創作去探究共振的「揚聲物件(Speaker objects)」。在這系列作品中,震動傳感器與接觸式麥克風會同時被貼在選定的物件或材質上,使其自體產生共鳴。這件原本被定位為現場演出的作品,在後續的十幾年不斷被再現、重製為展覽與互動裝置,並各自被不同機構所典藏。

Again, I want to talk about David Tudor’s work — Rainforest series. He had attempted to explore resonant speaker objects since 1968. In his work, vibration sensor and contact microphone would be stick on chosen objects and produce resonance with it. It was originally a live performance. However, it is now reproduced as an exhibition and interaction installation and collected by different institutions.