音景作曲 Soundscape Composition


I try to listen to
the still, small voice within
but I can’t hear it
above the din
《小奧黛麗的故事(Little Audrey’s Story)》伊麗莎·沃德(Eliza Ward)

「音景作曲」是電子原聲音樂(Electroacoustic Music)的其中一種形式,其特徵在於將可識別的環境聲響與背景音做為創作素材,以喚起聽者相關的聯想、記憶與想像。它可以是真實或抽象的構成,像是一種聲音的蒙太奇。

Soundscape composition is one of the form of electroacoustic music, whose characteristic is its montage that could turn recognizable background music into materials for production. It is both real and abstract, which arouses audience’s memory and imagination.



在「音景的現代性:美國的建築聲學與聆聽文化(The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America)」一書中,艾米莉·湯普森提到:與地景一樣,音景除了能描述物理環境,也是我們感知周遭的一種方式。音景的文化層面,包含了科學與美學的聆聽方式、聽者與所處環境的關係,以及主宰誰能聽見什麼的社會情境。

Emily Thompson once mentioned in her book The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, “ A soundscape is a sonic environment, an auditory landscape. It is simultaneously a physical environment and a way of perceiving that environment.” 



當一個人開始有意識地面對周遭聲響,聽覺即與所處的環境產生連結;一段環境音會如何被解讀,取決於個體或社會與環境的關係。在「世界音景計畫(World Soundscape Project)」對「聲音生態學(Acoustic ecology)
」的持續關注與推廣中,人們對音景的覺察逐漸提升,連帶地使「音景作曲」此一與音訊技術發展密切關聯的創作型態發展日益蓬勃。

When one starts to face surrounding noises, his auditory system connects with environment. How soundscape is perceived depends on relationship between individuals and society.  With World Soundscape Project’s promotion on acoustic ecology, more and more people gradually notice the importance of soundscape and hence boosts development of sound-related technology.



「音景作曲」開始於將環境聲響從原本的脈絡中取出的練習。像對待現成物一般,簡單地為其「取景(framing)」,使聽者的注意力被引導至最終呈現的樣態。這意味著作曲技法最少程度地涉入,僅透過選擇音軌、樸素地剪輯跟交叉淡入(cross-fading)來實現創作意圖。此般「中立」使用環境錄音的方式,重新組建了被人為再現的音景。那些盡可能貼近原貌、試圖還原當下聆聽經驗,甚至被稱為「現成曲目」的作品,就像光譜上的一個端點,而另一端,則將環境錄音視為可供調變的素材,並嘗試結合類比或數位的錄音室技術,使聲音變得更為抽象。其後,音景作曲的手法與內容逐漸變得多樣,但無論如何,其目的始終是為了揭示聲音內涵的更深層意義,訴諸聽者的語義聯想但不抹除聲音的可識別性。

Soundscape begins with the practice of extracting environmental sound from context. Simply named with “framing”, it leads audience’s attention to the final display, which means that the composition has to use less techniques and just simple cross-fading. This neutral way of recording reconstructs soundscape. Those works, which engrave the original listening experience, are like one extreme point of spectrum. While the endpoint turns environmental recording into modulatable materials and make sound more abstract through combination of analogy/digital recording techniques. 



以下茲舉幾個當代音景作曲的例子。

Following are three examples of contemporary soundscape composition: 


Patria the Epilogue: And Wolf Shall Inherit the Moon (1988- )

Murray Schafer的這齣環境音樂劇,是一個由75名志願者歷時一週,於安大略省哈利伯頓(Haliburton)森林與野生動物保護區所完成的合作項目,為其「家鄉(Patria, 1966-)」系列的結尾作品。「加拿大研究期刊(Journal of Canadian Studies)」曾評論此作「表演者、創作者與聽眾同時聚在一起,共構了一個參與式與儀式性(Participatory and Ritualistic)的劇場-專為加拿大荒野量身打造的表演場域。在帶有爭議但豐富多彩的實踐之中,落實了Schafer近乎理想主義的文化願景。」於此,在接收周遭環境聲響時,聽者不單只是被動的受眾,而是被賦予了做為「表演者與作曲家」的責任。

A collaborative project involving 75 volunteer participants, the work takes place over an entire week each August in the Haliburton Forest and Wild Life Reserve near Ontario’s Algonquin Park. It forms the epilogue to the composer’s massive Patria series (1966- ). Simultaneously performers, creators and audience, the participants camp together as they enact Schafer’s participatory and ritualistic theatre — a theatre specifically designed for performance in the Canadian wilderness. As such, And Wolf Shall Inherit the Moon functions as an atelier for Schafer’s cultural vision, grounding his idealism in a problematic but rich practice.



N30: Live at the WTO

Christopher De Laurenti的雙CD作品《N30: Live at the WTO》與《N30: Who guards the Guardians?》,收錄了1999年11月30日西雅圖WTO會場外反全球化運動的衝突場景,成千上萬群眾抗議世貿自成立四年來推動的貿易自由化政策。藝術家穿梭在城市的大街小巷中,紀錄支持與反對者們滿溢的情緒,包括示威抗議的叫喊、尖叫與暴力、標語與口號,以及由胡椒噴霧、催淚瓦斯和橡皮子彈、磚瓦投擲交織而成的聲音漩渦。Christopher認為田野錄音不應侷限於專業人士,任何樂於傾聽這世界的人都該走到戶外,試著錄下他們所聽見的聲音。

November 30, 1999: Christopher DeLaurenti was down in the streets of Seattle, microphone in hand, to document the World Trade Organization protest. The microphone captures what happens in its vicinity; the story develops itself. The exuberant crowd chants and percussion jams early in the day are interrupted by the police forces taking action against the protesters, and the piece ends on a vocal lament from a group of participants mourning the death of democracy.



DogPoundFoundSound(Bad Radio Dog Massacre)

克勞德·馬修斯(Claude Matthews)的這張專輯,被喻為是「最殘忍又令人動容的錄音」。馬修斯將錄音設備私自攜進曼哈頓的動物護理和控制中心,紀錄那些在劫難逃的狗兒與周遭聲響。長達兩小時的錄音中,會聽到一連串的低嚎與吠叫、沈重的開門聲、鐵鍊摩擦地面,此起彼落,然後突兀地暫停,接著又是一陣合唱般地嚎叫。那些未經修飾、微小而寫實的片段,描繪出籠中狗兒對自由(或至少被重視)的乞求,令人驚嘆又唏噓。

This two-CD set compiles over two hours of clips of animal-shelter dogs in "acute stress." It is anti-copyright and is being distributed free of charge. The purpose is to alert the public to the conditions inside a New York City Center for Animal Care and Control (CACC). Previously, Matthews put up posters pointing out that thousands of animals are killed monthly in these institutions. It was while photographing for the final poster that he made these recordings. This is a noble effort for a noble cause, and deserves to be heard.