聽的千萬種可能 Ways of Listening

Published on Art Plus magazine, December 2016

我們的耳朵沒有塞子,注定會一直聽著;但這並不表示,我們有一雙開放的耳朵。-R. Murray Schafer


雖然聲音是聽覺的感官刺激,但做為一種表達的介面,人們經常是在「觀看」一個「聲音事件(Sound event)」。若更細緻地去討論,在一個聲音事件中,會包含許多獨立或連動的「聲音物件(Sound object)
」,我們能從中感受聲音的質地,並基於個人經驗去辨認其所指涉的意涵。這是一個與聽者相關的再現系統、一種將聲音「據為己有」的過程,包含主動跟被動的因素,並涉及生理機制和本體認知。

As an auditory stimuli, sound is viewed as an interface of expression and people often watch a sound event. In detail, a sound event comprises many individual sound objects and we interprets the texture of sound based on our experience. This is a process that audience occupies the sound passively or aggressively, which involves physical mechanism and recognition factors.



以「雞尾酒派對效應」為例,人耳可以在吵雜的環境中對焦於特定聲源,忽略其他具有同等音量的噪音干擾。「聽見(Hear)」是種滲透意識的非自願行為,一個人幾乎無法停止接收周遭的聲響;「聆聽(Listen)」則意指聽者主動去捕抓聲音的意圖
。討論「如何去聽」,非指技術上的音感或分析能力,而是較近似於一個人在開放空間中,選擇去聽見什麼時,體現於其身體與環境之上,物質、政治、社會、歷史、地理、身體、心裡、文化的瞬間交會。

Take cocktail party effect as an example, our ear are able to focus on particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, as when a partygoer can focus on a single conversation in a noisy room. One can hardly stop receiving surrounding sound, as hearing is an involuntary behavior and listening, however, refers to aggressively capture sound.




皮耶爾。夏佛(Pierre Schaeffer)在1948年率先將「具象音樂(Musique concrète)」一詞用於對新音樂的嘗試上。以具象的聲音素材開始,先挖掘聲音的質地,經電子加工與蒙太奇進行更改,接著尋找抽象的音樂價值加諸其上。這正好與一般先有抽象概念,再透過作曲技法來實踐完整演出的古典音樂傳統相反。在他的Solfège de L’Objet Sonore(1967)中,更進一步透過「分類學(Typology )」將聲音視為創作材料。就像雕塑家雕琢石材、畫家調和顏色、攝影師定位與捕抓瞬間、導演剪輯影像一樣,音樂家有能力去調變各種聲音,形塑並利用其質地改變最終呈現的樣態。

Pierre Schaeffer is a pioneer of applying the concept of musique concrète into music. Starting with concrete sound materials, he first discovered the texture of sound, re-edit it with electronics and montage and then put them into abstract music. Conversely, classical music commences with abstract concept and gets completed through compositional techniques. In Solfège de L’Objet Sonore, Pierre Schaeffer practiced typology to view sounds as materials of creation. Musicians are able to modulate various sounds and utilize their texture to alter their final expression.



聲音的特色之一,在於能瞬間出現與消失的特性,精確的時空切點,使人得以判斷自身相對位置與音源物的移動。當全世界都致力於如何「真實」、「正確」地再現錄音時,部分藝術家透過相同器材提供了另類思考方向。如Pierre Henry以及法國GRM
都曾把喇叭當作聲音主體或演出者,而非再現過程的幕後工具。1974年,GRM延續其「無視覺純聲音樂(Musique Acousmatique)」的概念,在一場音樂會中將大量音箱分佈於觀眾席四周,經過不斷地嘗試與調整,加入了遠近的空間層次,讓聲響流動更具可變性與人性。這種表現方式(Acousmonium)很快地得到國際學術界的認可,成為具象音樂面向公眾演奏的代表規格。此後多聲道的概念被廣泛運用,處理過的聲響在空間中被擺放、排列、並置, 除改變聽眾鑑賞音樂的方式,也模糊了「聽/看」的界線。

One of characteristics of sound is its immediate existence and disappearance, which allows us to measure our relative position and the movement of sound source. While people are striving for displaying realistic and accurate recording, some artist have another thoughts. For example, Pierre Henry and GRM once used speaker as performer, rather than a stagehand.  In 1974, GRM extends the concept of Musique Acousmatique and put amount of speakers among auditorium. They put a lot of effort adjusting and add spatial levels in order to make sound more fluid and offer audience better experience.This kind of acousmonium is widely accepted by international academia and become a standard for performance of Musique Concrète.




以作曲家大衛·都鐸(David Tudor)的「雨林(Rainforest)」系列為例,他自1968年起,試圖透過一系列創作去探究共振的「揚聲物件(Speaker objects)」。震動傳感器被貼在選定的物件或材質上,使其扮演了喇叭膜片的角色,延伸空間與材質自身的共鳴,與所處聲學環境交互影響
。諸多不同材質、大小與功能的物件被懸掛在空間各處,將展覽空間轉化為混音的場所,觀眾可自由選擇聆聽的角度,材質的共鳴在空間與物件中流竄、鏡射、開展,形成一指向模糊的環繞音場。

Take David Tudor as an example, he had attempted to explore resonant speaker objects since 1968. In his work, vibration sensor and contact microphone would be stick on chosen objects and produce resonance with it. It was originally a live performance. However, it is now reproduced as an exhibition and interaction installation and collected by different institutions.




藝術家Robert Morris的「包含自身製作聲響的箱子(Box With The Sound Of Its Own Making)」,將極簡藝術的施工過程與作品本身融為一體。木箱會發出打磨、敲擊聲響,使觀者能同時感受到藝術品的製造過程。在此作品中,除聲音外,視覺上的觀察亦是必要組成部分。經由凝視,才能使預錄聲響跟眼前的物件產生連結。

On the other hand, the work of Robert Morris Box With The Sound Of Its Own Making combines construction process with the artwork itself. Wooden box would make the sound of polishing and knocking, which allows audience feel the process of creating art. 




「雨林」強調的是「發聲的方式」,透過震動物體去彰顯材質自身共鳴。而Robert Morris則是透過「聲音內容的指涉」去延伸物件材質的敘事。做為「觀看」聲音的不同途徑,其中的連結,可被視為聲音藝術由古典音樂傳統進入視覺藝術領域時,於美學視角上的轉換。認知到聆聽的各種面向與可能性,我們才能經由聲音作品,去討論感知、個體與環境間的交互關係。


(原文刊載於藝術地圖雜誌2017年12月號)